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Endometrial Cancer Stages

Question: pathophysiology of endometrial cancer stage IV with brain metastasis?

Answer: Endometrial (uterine) cancer is cancerous growth of the lining of the uterus.It mainly occurs after menopause. Epidemiology-25% premenopausal and 75% postmenopausal. The most affected group is between 50-59. Pathophysiology- Increase in natural estrogen levels. Histopathology is usually an endometrial adenocarcinoma. It appears as a background of endometrial hyperplasia . Tumor cells are atypical and form irregular glands with multiple lumens. The stroma is reduced.; producing back to back aspect With evolution of the disease; the myometrium, the outer lining is infiltrated. Risk Factors:Obesity ->30lbs or 14kg.. Women with excess fats produce more estrogen. Fat converts certain hormones into a form of estrogen. Diabetes and hypertension. These conditions are usually associated with obesity. Other cancers, such as colon cancers, and breast Ca. In Race. White women have a higher risk than black. Nulliparity, when a woman never became pregnant, infertility, early menarche,first menstruation and late menopause. Post menopausal women who use estrogen replacement therapy. Use of Tamoxifen, drug used for breast cancer.This drug tends to have estrogen like effects on the uterus. Women who use birth control pills that have a combination of estrogen and progesterone are at lesser risks. The progesterone protects the endometrium from the cancer causing effect of the estrogen. Stages of endometrial cancer: Endometrial carcinoma is surgically staged using the FIGO cancer staging system. Stage IA: tumor is limited to the endometrium Stage IB: invasion of less than half the myometrium Stage IC: invasion of more than half the myometrium Stage IIA: endocervical glandular involvement only Stage IIB: cervical stromal invasion Stage IIIA: tumor invades serosa or adnexa, or malignant peritoneal cytology Stage IIIB: vaginal metastasis Stage IIIC: metastasis to pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes Stage IVA: invasion of the bladder or bowel Stage IVB: distant metastasis, including intraabdominal or inguinal lymph nodes The only treatment is surgery. Abdominal Hysterectomy is recommended over vaginal hysterectomy. It affords opportunity to examine and obtin washings of abdominal cavity to detect further evidence of Ca. Lymphadenectomy or removal of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes is considered esp for Stage 3 and 4, where the lymph nodes are involved. Surgery with radiation is advised for Stage 1 and 2. Surgery plus chemotherapy is advised in severe cases as in Stage 3 and 4. Survival rates: The 5-year survival rate for endometrial cancer following appropriate treatment is: 75% to 95% for stage 1 50% for stage 2 30% for stage 3 less than 5% for stage 4 The picture here is very dim if the disease is not detected early. So regular check ups with pap smears is recommended. I hope you don't have this dreaded and awful disease. But if you do or know somebody who does, don't delay, go for surgery and chemotherapy. If it has metastasized to the brain, that means other organs are also affected.

Endometrial Cancer Stages News

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